ARTICLE: Older Adults' Views and Communication Preferences About Cancer Screening Cessation

AUTHORS: Nancy L. Schoenborn, Kimberley Lee, Craig E. Pollack, Karen Armacost, Sydney M. Dy, John F. P. Bridges, Qian-Li Xue, Antonio C. Wolff, Cynthia Boyd

JOURNAL: JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jun 12. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.1778. [Epub ahead of print]


IMPORTANCE: Older adults with limited life expectancy are frequently screened for cancer even though it exposes them to risks of screeningwith minimal benefit. Patient preferences may be an important contributor to continued screening.

OBJECTIVE: To examine older adults' views on the decision to stop cancer screening when life expectancy is limited and to identify olderadults' preferences for how clinicians should communicate recommendations to cease cancer screening.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this semistructured interview study, we interviewed 40 community-dwelling older adults (≥ 65 years) recruited at 4 clinical programs affiliated with an urban academic medical center.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURE: We transcribed the audio recorded discussions and analyzed the transcripts using standard techniques of qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and subthemes.

RESULTS: The participants' average age was 75.7 years. Twenty-three participants (57.5%) were female; 25 (62.5%) were white. Estimated life expectancy was less than 10 years for 19 participants (47.5%). We identified 3 key themes. First, participants were amenable to stopping cancer screening, especially in the context of a trusting relationship with their clinician. Second, although many participants supported using age and health status to individualize the screening decision, they did not often understand the role of life expectancy. All except 2 participants objected to a Choosing Wisely statement about not recommending cancer screening in those with limited life expectancy, often believing that clinicians cannot accurately predict life expectancy. Third, participants preferred that clinicians explain a recommendation to stop screening by incorporating individual health status but were divided on whether life expectancy should be mentioned. Specific wording of life expectancy was important; many felt the language of "you may not live long enough to benefit from this test" was unnecessarily harsh compared with the more positive messaging of "this test would not help you live longer."

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although research and clinical practice guidelines recommend using life expectancy to inform cancer screening, older adults may not consider life expectancy important in screening and may not prefer to hear about life expectancy when discussing screening. The described communication preferences can help inform future screening discussions. Better delineating patient-centered approaches to discuss screening cessation is an important step toward optimizing cancer screening in older adults.

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