Early Outpatient Treatment for Covid-19 with Convalescent Plasma

ARTICLE: Early Outpatient Treatment for Covid-19 with Convalescent Plasma

AUTHORS: David J SullivanKelly A GeboShmuel Shoham, Evan M Bloch, Bryan Lau, Aarthi G Shenoy, Giselle S Mosnaim, Thomas J Gniadek, Yuriko Fukuta, Bela Patel, Sonya L Heath, Adam C Levine, Barry R Meisenberg, Emily S Spivak, Shweta Anjan, Moises A Huaman, Janis E Blair, Judith S Currier, James H Paxton, Jonathan M Gerber, Joann R Petrini, Patrick B Broderick, William Rausch, Marie-Elena Cordisco, Jean Hammel, Benjamin Greenblatt, Valerie C Cluzet, Daniel Cruser, Kevin Oei, Matthew Abinante, Laura L Hammitt, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Donald N Forthal, Martin S Zand, Edward R Cachay, Jay S Raval, Seble G Kassaye, E Colin Foster, Michael Roth, Christi E Marshal1, Anusha Yarava, Karen Lane, Nichol A McBee, Amy L Gawad, Nicky Karlen, Atika Singh, Daniel E Ford, Douglas A Jabs, Lawrence J Appel, David M Shade, Stephan Ehrhardt, Sheriza N Baksh, Oliver Laeyendecker, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Arturo Casadevall, Aaron A R Tobian, Daniel F Hanley

JOURNAL: N Engl J Med. 2022 Mar 30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2119657. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Polyclonal convalescent plasma may be obtained from donors who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The efficacy of this plasma in preventing serious complications in outpatients with recent-onset Covid-19 is uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Covid-19 convalescent plasma, as compared with control plasma, in symptomatic adults (≥18 years of age) who had tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, regardless of their risk factors for disease progression or vaccination status. Participants were enrolled within 8 days after symptom onset and received a transfusion within 1 day after randomization. The primary outcome was Covid-19-related hospitalization within 28 days after transfusion.

Results: Participants were enrolled from June 3, 2020, through October 1, 2021. A total of 1225 participants underwent randomization, and 1181 received a transfusion. In the prespecified modified intention-to-treat analysis that included only participants who received a transfusion, the primary outcome occurred in 17 of 592 participants (2.9%) who received convalescent plasma and 37 of 589 participants (6.3%) who received control plasma (absolute risk reduction, 3.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.8; P = 0.005), which corresponded to a relative risk reduction of 54%. Evidence of efficacy in vaccinated participants cannot be inferred from these data because 53 of the 54 participants with Covid-19 who were hospitalized were unvaccinated and 1 participant was partially vaccinated. A total of 16 grade 3 or 4 adverse events (7 in the convalescent-plasma group and 9 in the control-plasma group) occurred in participants who were not hospitalized.

Conclusions: In participants with Covid-19, most of whom were unvaccinated, the administration of convalescent plasma within 9 days after the onset of symptoms reduced the risk of disease progression leading to hospitalization. (Funded by the Department of Defense and others; CSSC-004 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04373460.).

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