Efficacy of Long-Acting Bedaquiline Regimens in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy

ARTICLE: Efficacy of Long-Acting Bedaquiline Regimens in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy

AUTHORS: Amit KaushikNicole C AmmermanRokeya Tasneen, Sophie Lachau-Durand, Koen Andries, Eric Nuermberger

JOURNAL: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Mar 1;205(5):570-579. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202012-4541OC.

Abstract

Rationale: Completion of preventive therapy is a major bottleneck in global tuberculosis control. Long-acting injectable drug formulations would shorten therapy administration and may thereby improve completion rates. Recently, a long-acting formulation of bedaquiline demonstrated antituberculosis activity for up to 12 weeks after injection in a validated mouse model of preventive therapy.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the total duration of activity after an injection of long-acting bedaquiline and 2) evaluate the activity of regimens comprised of long-acting bedaquiline plus short (2-4 wk) oral companion courses of bedaquiline, with or without rifapentine, using the validated mouse model of tuberculosis preventive therapy.

Methods: After the establishment of a stable Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection in bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-immunized BALB/c mice, treatment was initiated with 1 of 12 randomly assigned regimens. In addition to positive and negative controls, six regimens included one or two injections of long-acting bedaquiline (alone or with oral bedaquiline with or without rifapentine), and four comparator regimens consisted of oral agents only. Lung bacterial burden was measured monthly for up to 28 weeks.

Measurements and Main Results: One injection of long-acting bedaquiline at 160 mg/kg exerted antituberculosis activity for 12 weeks. Compared with the positive control (daily isoniazid-rifapentine for 4 wk), six regimens had equivalent bactericidal activity (including two all-oral comparator regimens), and two regimens had superior sterilizing activity: one injection with 2 weeks of oral bedaquiline and high-dose rifapentine; and two injections with 4 weeks of oral bedaquiline.

Conclusions: Long-acting injectable bedaquiline has significant potential for shortening tuberculosis preventive therapy.

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