ARTICLE: Glutamine metabolism inhibition has dual immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
AUTHORS: Sadiya Parveen, Jessica Shen, Shichun Lun, Liang Zhao, Jesse Alt, Benjamin Koleske, Robert D Leone, Rana Rais, Jonathan D Powell, John R Murphy, Barbara S Slusher, William R Bishai
JOURNAL: Nat Commun. 2023 Nov 16;14(1):7427. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-43304-0.
As one of the most successful human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved a diverse array of determinants to subvert host immunity and alter host metabolic patterns. However, the mechanisms of pathogen interference with host metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we show that a glutamine metabolism antagonist, JHU083, inhibits Mtb proliferation in vitro and in vivo. JHU083-treated mice exhibit weight gain, improved survival, a 2.5 log lower lung bacillary burden at 35 days post-infection, and reduced lung pathology. JHU083 treatment also initiates earlier T-cell recruitment, increased proinflammatory myeloid cell infiltration, and a reduced frequency of immunosuppressive myeloid cells when compared to uninfected and rifampin-treated controls. Metabolomic analysis of lungs from JHU083-treated Mtb-infected mice reveals citrulline accumulation, suggesting elevated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and lowered levels of quinolinic acid which is derived from the immunosuppressive metabolite kynurenine. JHU083-treated macrophages also produce more NO potentiating their antibacterial activity. When tested in an immunocompromised mouse model of Mtb infection, JHU083 loses its therapeutic efficacy suggesting the drug's host-directed effects are likely to be predominant. Collectively, these data reveal that JHU083-mediated glutamine metabolism inhibition results in dual antibacterial and host-directed activity against tuberculosis.
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