ARTICLE: Nativity-Related Disparities in Preeclampsia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among a Racially Diverse Cohort of US Women
AUTHORS: Ellen Boakye, Yaa Adoma Kwapong, Olufunmilayo Obisesan, S Michelle Ogunwole, Allison G Hays, Khurram Nasir, Roger S Blumenthal, Pamela S Douglas, Michael J Blaha, Xiumei Hong, Andreea A Creanga, Xiaobin Wang, Garima Sharma
JOURNAL: JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Dec 1;4(12):e2139564. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.39564.
Importance: Preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for future cardiovascular disease and disproportionally affects non-Hispanic Black women. The association of maternal nativity and duration of US residence with preeclampsia and other cardiovascular risk factors is well described among non-Hispanic Black women but not among women of other racial and ethnic groups.
Objective: To examine differences in cardiovascular risk factors and preeclampsia prevalence by race and ethnicity, nativity, and duration of US residence among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White women.
Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional analysis of the Boston Birth Cohort included a racially diverse cohort of women who had singleton deliveries at the Boston Medical Center from October 1, 1998, to February 15, 2016. Participants self-identified as Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, or non-Hispanic White. Data were analyzed from March 1 to March 31, 2021.
Exposures: Maternal nativity and duration of US residence (<10 vs ≥10 years) were self-reported.
Main outcome and measures: Diagnosis of preeclampsia, the outcome of interest, was retrieved from maternal medical records.
Results: A total of 6096 women (2400 Hispanic, 2699 non-Hispanic Black, and 997 non-Hispanic White) with a mean (SD) age of 27.5 (6.3) years were included in the study sample. Compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, non-Hispanic Black women had the highest prevalence of chronic hypertension (204 of 2699 [7.5%] vs 65 of 2400 [2.7%] and 28 of 997 [2.8%], respectively), obesity (658 of 2699 [24.4%] vs 380 of 2400 [15.8%] and 152 of 997 [15.2%], respectively), and preeclampsia (297 of 2699 [11.0%] vs 212 of 2400 [8.8%] and 71 of 997 [7.1%], respectively). Compared with their counterparts born outside the US, US-born women in all 3 racial and ethnic groups had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (Hispanic women, 132 of 556 [23.7%] vs 248 of 1844 [13.4%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 444 of 1607 [27.6%] vs 214 of 1092 [19.6%]; non-Hispanic White women, 132 of 776 [17.0%] vs 20 of 221 [9.0%]), smoking (Hispanic women, 98 of 556 [17.6%] vs 30 of 1844 [1.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 330 of 1607 [20.5%] vs 53 of 1092 [4.9%]; non-Hispanic White women, 382 of 776 [49.2%] vs 42 of 221 [19.0%]), and severe stress (Hispanic women, 76 of 556 [13.7%] vs 85 of 1844 [4.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 231 of 1607 [14.4%] vs 120 of 1092 [11.0%]; non-Hispanic White women, 164 of 776 [21.1%] vs 26 of 221 [11.8%]). After adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, birth status outside the US (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-1.00]) and shorter duration of US residence (aOR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.41-0.93]) were associated with lower odds of preeclampsia among non-Hispanic Black women. However, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, maternal nativity (aOR for Hispanic women, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.72-1.60]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.49-1.96]) and duration of US residence (aOR for Hispanic women <10 years, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.67-1.59]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women <10 years, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.48-3.02]) were not associated with preeclampsia.
Conclusions and relevance: Nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia persisted among non-Hispanic Black women but not among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women after adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to explore the interplay of factors contributing to nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia, particularly among non-Hispanic Black women.
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